How do I create a certificate with Elliptic Curve (or RSA)

Why would I want to use Elliptic Curve?

Some ciphers are considered stronger than others.  For example certificates with Elliptic Curve algorithms are now considered better than using the well known RSA.    They are more secure and use less resources.  Over time certificates with Elliptic Curves may become the norm.  See here.

If you change to use a different algorithm you need to make sure that both ends of the TLS connection support it.   If a cipher spec beginning with TLS_ECDHE is the only cipher spec available, it may not work with certificates with RSA.

When you create a certificate you first create the private key, and then make the public certificate.  You can sometimes combine this into one operation.

To make a private key using Elliptic Curve

Use

openssl genpkey -out $name.key.pem -algorithm EC -pkeyopt ec_paramgen_curve:P-256 -aes256 -pass file:password.file

where

  • $name – I create the certificate in a shell script.  As the name of the certificate is used in many places – it is best to use a shell variable to hold the short certificate name.
  • -algorithm EC says this is an Elliptic Curve
  •  P-256  is the Elliptic Curve definition to use.   This is a popular key;  it has a key length of 256.  It is also known as prime256v1.
  • -aes256 -pass file:password.file says encrypt the private key using the aes 256 cipher spec (there are others available) – and use the password in the file. You need this when doing working with private key and public certificate, for example creating the certificate request.  If you do not specify -aes256 (or equivilant)  etc the private key is not encrypted, and so could be used if stolen.   This is not used during TLS handshakes.

Or (the old syntax )

openssl ecparam -name prime256v1 -genkey -noout -out $name.key.pem …

You then create the request and get the request signed (this is common to all requests)

name=”eccert”
openssl req -config xxx.config -new -key $name.key.pem -out $name.csr -outform PEM -subj “/C=GB/O=cpwebuser/CN=”$name -passin file:password.file -passout file:password.file
openssl ca -config openssl-ca-user.cnf -policy signing_policy  -md sha256 -cert ca2.pem -keyfile ca2.key.pem -out $name.pem -in $name.csr  -extensions clientServer

The command openssl x509 -in eccert.pem -text -noout|less displays the certificate and gives

Subject Public Key Info:
  Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
    Public-Key: (256 bit)
     pub:
       04:...
       ce:60:63:03:84
     ASN1 OID: prime256v1
     NIST CURVE: P-256

During the TLS handshake, this can be processed by CipherSpecs TLS_EC*, such as TLS_ECDH… and TLS_ECDHE…

If you use openssl ecparam -name secp521r1  this gives Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey Public-Key: (521 bit)

To make a private key using RSA

Use

openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:4096 -out $name.key.pem -aes256 -pass pass:password

Or (the old syntax)

openssl genrsa -out $name.key.pem 4096 -aes256 -pass pass:password

where

  • rsa_keygen_bits:4096  – is the size of the key to use.
  • -aes256 -pass pass:password says encrypt the private key  using the aes 256 cipher spec (there are others available) – the password is password.  You need this when doing working with private key and public certificate.  This is not used during TLS handshakes.

You make the request and get it signed (the statements below are the same as for the EC certificate)

name=”rsa”
ca=”ca2″
openssl req -config xxx.config -new -key $name.key.pem -out $name.csr -outform PEM -subj “/C=GB/O=cpwebuser/CN=”$name -passin file:password.file -passout file:password.file
openssl ca -config openssl-ca-user.cnf -policy signing_policy  -md sha256 -cert $ca.pem -keyfile $c2.key.pem -out $name.pem -in $name.csr  -extensions clientServer

The command openssl x509 -in rsa.pem -text -noout|less displays the certificate and gives

Subject Public Key Info:
  Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
   RSA Public-Key: (4096 bit)
    Modulus:
      00:d0:88:d2:d0:86:34:82:bb:1a:7b:a0:6d:37:fd:
      ... 
     1e:3d:31
    Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)

During the TLS handshake, this can be processed by CipherSpecs TLS_RSA*.

Changing the Signature Algorithm:

With a java program, you can use java.security to limit which Security Algorithms are allowed during the handshake, and so prevent certificates from being used.

As part of the TLS handshake there is a conversation about the encryption of the certificate.  For example listing an RSA certificate gives

Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption

You can change this by using

openssl ca … -md sha384

This gives

Signature Algorithm: sha384WithRSAEncryption

For an Elliptic Curve certificate this was

Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256  with the default -md (sha256) or Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA384 ( when -md sha384 is specified)

Storing the certificate

I used a script to generate my certificate.  In this script I had

  • openssl x509 -in $name.pem -text -noout|less to display the certificate, and check the options
  • openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey $name.key.pem -in $name.pem -out $name.p12 -CAfile ca256.pem -chain -name $name -passout file:password.file -passin file:password.file to create the *.p12 file with the certificate and CA chain, so it can be used by java, and curl etc
  • certutil -D $sql -n $name remove the certificate from the Chrome browser keystore.  Where sql=”-d sql:/home/colinpaice/snap/chromium/current/.pki/nssdb”
  • pk12util -i $name.p12 $sql -W password to add the  .p12 created above into the Chromium keystore (along with its CA chain)

Using the certificate

For my java programs I used the certificate keystore sssks.p12 with -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStore=/home/colinpaice/ssl/ssl2/sssks.p12 -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword=password -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStoreType=pkcs12 or for mqwebuser.xml  <keyStore id=”defaultKeyStore” location=”/home/colinpaice/ssl/sssks.p12″ type=”pkcs12″ password=”password”/>

Should I specify which cipher suites my web browser should use – or the opposite?

I was investigating how to upgrade the certificate used by my mqweb server from RSA to the new, improved, Elliptic Curve, and wondered how to make it most secure.
At first I thought the answer to the question was yes, then I changed my mind to no, then I changed to yes, and now I think you should do something else!

The short answer is you should not specify which cipher specs to use, but you may considering saying which ones not to use by overriding java.security features.

SSL and TLS Deployment Best Practices covers many good topics.

The first part of the TLS handshake

  • The client sends a list of the cipher suites it supports to the server
  • The serve has its own list (which you can influence)
  • The server takes each cipher suite in turn from the client list, and selects the first one which is in the server’s list and matches the server’s certificate
  • If the server is using an RSA certificate, then cipher suites with TLS_…RSA_WITH… are used. With Elliptic Curve certificates then TLS_….ECDSA_WITH… are used.

When using Chrome to talk to my java server the certificate suites sent up were

  • TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256, strong
  • TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 strong
  • TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 very strong
  • TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384  strong
  • SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA weak

These go from strong to weak.  Certificates with 3DES or _SHA are considered too weak to use.

My java server had the following cipher suites

  • TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
  • TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
  • TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
  • TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
  • TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384
  • TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
  • TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256
  • ….

And the final cipher suite chosen was

TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 – top of the list from the client and 29th in the list in the server – not the strongest certificate in the list which was a surprise.

Specifying a server cipher suite.

You can specify the list of cipher suites used by the server using the java property -Djdk.tls.server.cipherSuites=TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,…
So yes;  you can specify a list of cipher specs, and the order, and so put the “strongest first”.

I then asked myself is the default one TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 any better than the  “best one” TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384?

Bulk data encryption.

Looking on the internet, there is a general feeling that there is no significant difference between AES_128 and AES_256.  If quantum computers become a reality, then there may be benefits of AES_256, but then the whole of the encryption world will have changed.

AES…GCM is better than AES…CBC.  The difference between them is not so clear.  GCM is considered better than CBC, it can run on pipeline processors, but may use more CPU overall.  Both have weaknesses, but different weaknesses.

Hashing algorithm

I looked at the hashing algorithm, again there was not much difference between SHA256, SHA 384 and SHA512.
I did some evaluation on the use of SHA256 and SHA512 on my laptop using the command openssl speed sha256 sha512. This hashes different sized buffers and calculates bytes processed per second.

type    16 bytes   64 bytes  256 bytes 1024 bytes 16384 bytes
sha256 70348.86k 158677.42k 297724.76k 370884.61k 400878.25k
sha512 49354.44k 195907.78k 341598.21k 507424.77k 597409.79k

So we can see with very small buffers SHA 256 could do 70 MB/second, and SHA512 could only do 49 MB/second, but with bigger buffers SHA256 did 40MB/second, and SHA512 did 59 MB/second

It looks like there is no significant difference between them.

Note: when they upgraded SHA256 to SHA512 they improved the algorithm as well as the number of iterations. This applies to other algorithms as well.

Overall  the default TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 is as good as the “best one” TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384, and so there was no advantage in specifying a cipher suite.

Other advantages of not specifiying a cipher suite

Last year you may have specified the then best cipher suite.   This year there are new, better, cipher suites which are the default.  If you specified the cipher suite you will use last year’s suite.

When your web server supports TLSv1.3 ( dependent on java 11) it will use a different set of cipher suites.  By not specifying a cipher suite name, the migration will be easier.  Today browsers already support TLS v1.3 and send up a mixture of cipher suites for TLSv1.2 and TLS v1.3 as part of the TLS handshake.

Do not specify the cipher suite – specify what you do not want.

You can specify security information to java using a java.security file.  See here.  You can override this file using a system parameter like -Djava.security.properties=/home/colinpaice/eclipse-workspace-C/sslJava/bin/serverdisabled.properties.

In this file you can specify

jdk.tls.disabledAlgorithms=…
jdk.certpath.disabledAlgorithms= …

You specify what do you not want.

The defaults are

  • jdk.certpath.disabledAlgorithms=MD2, MD5, SHA1 jdkCA & usage TLSServer, RSA keySize < 1024, DSA keySize < 1024, EC keySize < 224
  • jdk.tls.disabledAlgorithms=SSLv3, RC4, DES, MD5withRSA, DH keySize < 1024,EC keySize < 224, 3DES_EDE_CBC

You could specify RSA keySize < 2048, so any cipher suites and certificate using an RSA key size of under 2048 would not be allowed.

Whoops my certificate has expired – what do I need to do?

The amount of work depends on what has expired.

  • If the root CA has expired then you need to reissue all certificate which include the root CA, and update trust stores
  • If the enterprise CA has expired you need to renew all certificates signed by the enterprise CA, and update trust stores with the new certificate
  • If your personal certificate has expired, you need to renew that certificate.

The amount of work also depends on the size of your enterprise.

I’ll list the work need if the certificate is going to expire next week – as this is more work than if it has already expired

If your personal certificate is going to expire

You need to

  • renew it, create a new private key and certificate request
  • or extend the date of the existing certificate  – by re-signing it
  • update the keystores which include it.  This could be those used by java programs ( .p12, or .jks) as well as any browser keystore (.nssdb)

To renew your personal certificate

You can just recreate it.  If you are considering to use a stronger algorithms, such as Elliptic Curves, bear in mind that the servers need to be able to support what you specify.

Depending on how your openssl has been configured, if you have unique_subject = yes you may need to use openssl revoke… to remove the old personal certificate from the configuration.   This is to ensure there is only one certificate with the same distinguished name, and online checking of certificate validity (Certificate Revocation Lists and Online Status Certificate Protocol) can be used.  If you have unique_subject = no, you can recreate the certificate without revoking it.

  • openssl genpkey  to generate a new private key
  • openssl req to create a request

You do not need to recreate it – you can just sign it again.

You then need to do normal process of update the users of the certificate.

  • openssl ca to sign the request
  • openssl pkcs12 -export to create the .p12 file
  • You may want to deploy it only when the machine is attached to the local network.  If you download it over wireless, or email, these may be compromised, and the bad guys can just use the new copy.  Downloading it over a wired connection eliminates this risk.
  • certutil -D $sql -n $shortName to remove the certificate from the browser’s keystore
  • pk12util -i $shortName.p12 $sql -W password to add the certificate to the browser’s keystore
  • /opt/mqm/bin/runmqckm -cert -delete  to remove a certificate from a keystore (.jks)
  • /opt/mqm/bin/runmqckm -cert -import to add a certificate to a keystore(.jks)
  • restart the servers to pick up the new certificate

Rather than deleting the certificate from the keystore and adding the new one with the same short name,  you may want to make a copy of the old certificate from the keystore, or simply backup the whole keystore – as it should not change once frequently.  If there are problems, restore from the backup.

To renew your enterprise certificate

This requires a lot more work than updating a personal certificate.

Just like the personal certificate you can recreate it, or just sign it again.

You need to phase in the new certificate as it may take days or weeks to deploy it successfully.

The client’s trust store needs the CA certificate matching the CA used by the server’s certificate.

If you have two servers, and change servers to use the new CA certificate, the client’s trust store content will change over time.

  • The old CA certificate – before any work is done
  • Both old and new CA certificates during the migration period.  The server using the old CA will use the old CA in the client.   The server which has been migrated to use the new CA will use the new CA in the client.
  • Just the new CA certificate.  Once the migration has finished. The old certificate can be removed when all of the servers have been migrated, or the certificate has expired.

A key store and a trust store can have certificate with the same distinguished names, but with a different short name or alias name.  My enterprise is called SSS, and the CA for my enterprise is CASSS… .  My trust store has

  • the CA with C=GB,O=SSS,OU=CA,CN=CASSS and short name CASSS2016 and
  • the CA with C=GB,O=SSS,OU=CA,CN=CASSS and short name CASSS2020 and

When you maintain a keystore you use the short name, for my example CASSS2016 or CASSS2020.

During the TLS handshake, when the server’s certificate is sent to the client, it is checked against all of the trusted CA certificates in the keystore, so having two certificates with the same DN does not matter.

The steps to deploy your new CA are

  • Get the new CA.  Either create a new CA using the latest algorithms and cipher suites (the better solution), or have the old certificate resigned.
  • For each user and server
    • Deploy the CA certificate into the trust stores with a new name – eg CASSS2020
  • For each user and server
    • Renew or recreate each personal and server certificate and sign it with the new CA
    • Deploy it securely to each user and server and replace the old personal certificate
    • You may want to deploy the private key only when attached to the local network.  If you download it over wireless, or email, these may be compromised, and the bad guys can just use the new copy.  Downloading it over a wired connection eliminates this risk.
  • For the server create java.security rules to disable weaker algorithms and cipher specs.   It is easy to undo this change.
    • This should identify any user not using the latest cipher suites and certificates.  These rules can be relaxed while problems are fixed.
  • For each user and server
    • Make a copy of the old CA certificate prior to deletion
    • Delete the old CA certificate from the trust stores eg CASSS
    • After a validation period delete the copy of the old certificate

Start all over again!

You can see how much work you need to do when you renew your enterprise CA, so make sure you  renew it in plenty of time – months rather than days.